Africa is the world’s largest and the second most populous continent. Generally when we memorize the Africa, we can imagine the malnutrition poverty and health problems. Beyond that actually Africa is a continent that’s suffering badly from economic, political and social problems. In this article, I’m going to discuss the challenges of the African region and the role of the United Nations towards it.
UN as one of the protector of people’s social economic and political areas, plays a vital role towards the advancement of African region. Today, African region is suffering various kinds of social, economic and political issues.
When we go through the economic aspect, one of the major problem is the poverty. Usually Africa is fighting against the extreme poverty. Africa represent more than 70% of the world’s poorest people. Every one person among 3 people lives below the poverty line. As a whole or individual state level Africa couldn’t provide satisfactory solutions for the basic human needs.
On the other hand Africa is suffering from unemployment especially for the youth. One of the reason for that is governments do not provide sufficient opportunities and investments for the youth. Because of this families are suffering from the poverty and crimes due to the unemployment.
Also lack of education, health issues like malnutrition, HIV AIDS are very common but devastating issues for the Africa.
Spreading Ebola is another challenge for the region. In 2014 WHO African regional office has reported about an outbreak of Ebola virus in guinea. Ebola virus was discovered in 1976 but with the outbreak in Guinea it spread among the other countries also. More than 11,000 people were died from this epidemic.
Insecurity is one of the burning problem in the African region. Terrorist groups like AL Shaabab and Boko haram hinder the progress of the Africa especially in the south Sudan, Libya and Somalia. This highly affects for the economic, social and political progress of the Africa.
Climatic changes also affect badly for the Africa like a silent enemy. The warming of Africa has increased over the past 100 year and it is a key issue and a challenge for the health and the livelihood of the people.
Corruptions is another challenge towards the political economic and social enhancement of the African region. One of the major reason of the poverty in Africa is the diversion of development resources unduly among the private hands. According to the surveys, Africa is the most corrupt region in the world. Addressing the issue of corruption is a current need of the region today.
The next important dilemma is the role of the United Nations towards the African region’s challenges.
UN always play an activist role in the social, economic and political progress of the region specially promoting and protecting the human rights.
UN associates closely with the African regional cooperation mechanism and is an activist partner in the peacekeeping mission. UN peacekeepers serve in Mali, South Sudan, Congo etc.in 1960 the first peacekeeping operation was deployed in the republic of Congo to withdrawal of Belgian forces and assist to maintaining peace and security.
In 2003 UN established United Nations office of the special adviser on Africa as an agency to support African development and to enhance the cooperation with the UN.
Another important role of the United Nations is the establishment of international criminal tribunal for Rwanda by the UN Security Council. It was established to “prosecute persons responsible for genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda and neighboring states in 1994.” It indicated 93 individuals including high ranking persons.
Also UN played a major role in the decolonization process of the Africa. At the end of the World War II most of the African states were under the colonial rule. But with the establishment of the UN in 1945 most African states could embrace independence with the effort of UN. Most recently in 2011 south Sudan gained the independence from the rest of the Sudan. Now Africa has 54 independent states.
As a region African region is now in a satisfactory level by economically, politically and socially. In each year from 2014 number of African states join the middle class level. Also in the 2014 region’s economy increased by 4%.
The e gender inequality also decreases. In 11 countries of the African region, women could gain one third of the seats in the parliaments.
Africa has suffered from number of economic, political and social issues since last decades. But nowadays Africa is a developing region. The UN also an activist partner in the economic, political and social progress of the African region.